1. What is Presbyopia?

People often confuse farsightedness with this condition, which occurs as the normal result of aging. Presbyopia affects most people by the age of 40 and everyone by the age of 51. This is because the aging process diminishes our natural ability to bring near objects into focus. This condition manifests when the lens inside the eye loses its flexibility, preventing accurate focus on objects in the near field of view, such as reading material.

Presbyopia can affect people who are myopic, emmetropic (no refractive error) and hyperopic. The latter combination is especially problematic because hyperopes often lose both distance and near vision at the same time after 40 years of going without glasses or contacts.

Symptoms and options
With presbyopia, you may experience eye fatigue when reading in poor light or at the end of the day, trouble changing focus from distance to near or the need to constantly reposition reading material to find the right focus. This condition is traditionally corrected with reading glasses, bifocals or contact lenses. NearVision CK (Conductive Keratoplasty) employs the only technology developed and approved specifically for this condition.

2. What is Hyperopia?

Hyperopia or farsightedness is a very common refractive disorder, affecting up to 62% of people over the age of 40. With hyperopia, you may see objects that are far away, but have difficulty focusing on near objects. You may also find that you can see things clearly, but have to strain your eyes to maintain focus.

Hyperopia occurs when the eyeball is too short or the cornea is too flat. When light enters a hyperopic (short) eyeball, it is focused behind the retina instead of directly on the retina where light must be directed for normal vision. Because of this, the focusing apparatus of the eye must constantly work to compensate and focus images.

Symptoms and options
Symptoms of hyperopia include blurred vision, eyestrain or headaches (especially when reading or at the end of the day). They will increase over time. Doctors prescribe a “plus” or convex corrective lens, in the form of eyeglasses or contacts, for the disorder. Hyperopia can also be corrected by steepening the central cornea using a vision procedure such as laser surgery or NearVision CK (Conductive Keratoplasty).

3. What is Myopia?

Myopia affects 26% of the non-Asian population. (Note: Myopia occurs at a much higher rate in the Asian population.) It is a condition in which you have difficulties seeing objects in the distance, but may not have problems focusing on objects close up. When the eyeball is too long or the cornea too steep, myopia is the result. Light enters a myopic (long) eyeball and is focused on the front of the retina, instead of directly on the retina for normal vision.

Symptoms and correction
Symptoms of myopia include eyestrain, blurred vision or headaches. Doctors prescribe “negative” or concave corrective lenses (eyeglasses or contact lenses) for this condition. Laser vision procedures can also surgically treat myopia.

4. What is Astigmatism?

In an eye with astigmatism, the front of the cornea is not equally curved; it is slightly oval in shape, much like a football, and causes light entering the eye to bend unequally, therefore distorting the image. This condition affects nearly 30% of the non-Asian population. Often, astigmatism occurs in conjunction with myopia or hyperopia, which can complicate refractive surgery.

Symptoms and correction
Astigmatic symptoms alone can be difficult to detect, but it’s possible that you may notice a subtle difficulty focusing on objects such as printed words. Your doctor, however, can definitively identify this condition during a comprehensive eye examination. Eyeglasses, contact lenses and even refractive surgery can effectively correct astigmatism.